Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK Endorsements

Wermuth's Greekbook Cover Art

Dr.  Samuel  Lamerson
— Associate  Professor  of  New Testament  and  Dean  of  Faculty,  Knox Seminary; Assistant Pastor,  Coral  Ridge  Presbyterian  Church,  Ft.  Lauderdale, Florida

Robert Wermuths  GREEKBOOK is a great help to those who need to see the noun and verb  charted completely,  and even for those who dont. This book has charts that no other book  (that  I  am  familiar  with)  has.


Rev.  Chris  Smith Founding  Pastor,  Resurrection Presbyterian  Church,  Carondelet,  Missouri

Studying, understanding, and delighting in language is in Robert Wermuths blood, and his first love among languages is New Testament Greek. Roberts  passion is teaching others, and not only is his enthusiasm infectious, but his methods are effective in helping his students get a firm handle on Greek. Through years of personal study, tutoring individuals, and teaching in a classroom setting, Robert has reshaped and  refined his material into the book you have before you. In a very short period of time, using the methods  that Robert developed, I was able to recapture the Greek that Id  first learned in seminary. I eagerly commend to you Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK. Im certain that it will be a great help to those who wish to read and understand the New Testament in the original language.


Rev.  Robert  Smart — Lead Pastor, Christ Church (PCA), Bloomington-­Normal, Illinois; Adjunct Homiletics Instructor, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri 

The first discoveries of the original languages of Holy Scripture play a big factor in how long  and  joyfully a bible student will keep digging for new treasures. Robert Wermuths masterful  way of  teaching not only introduced me to Greek but gave me confidence to go on from this  strong foundation to life-­changing exegesis.


Rev. Jeffrey J. Meyers — Pastor, Providence Reformed Presbyterian Church, Crestwood, Missouri

“If you are interested in learning Greek for the first time or need to bone up on your knowledge for New Testament studies, I highly recommend Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK. At Covenant Seminary, Robert’s note-taking skills and ability to systematize complex subjects in charts and diagrams were legendary. Robert brings his love of Greek and his hands-on understanding of pedagogy to this newer work. The charts alone are worth the price on the book.”


Luke B. Bobo Director and  Assistant Professor of Christian Ministry Studies, Lindenwood College of Individualized Education (LCIE), Lindenwood University, St. Charles, Missouri

I  am impressed with Roberts teaching style.  He makes learning an ancient language exciting. God has blessed him with a rare gift.


Dr. Daniel W. Zink Assistant Professor of Practical Theology, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri

Learning a language is never easy, but, in my experience, Robert Wermuths materials made it easier. The systems  built into his approach made learning logical and efficient. Robert has done the work of finding the patterns that,  when learned, allow the student to build new learning on  top of what he has previously learned. In this way, the  new things are not as new as they might initially appear.


Timothy Butler  Assistant Pastor of Discipleship, Grace Presbyterian Church, St. Charles, Missouri 

During the year I studied Greek under Mr. Wermuth at Lindenwood University, he gave me many helpful insights into the logic of  the language, completely eliminating the whole idea of memorizing every variant of every verb and noun individually. He demonstrated the patterns behind those variations, so that studying Greek became a process of understanding and not just memorization. It is extremely exciting to see this wonderfully useful information, most of which I have not seen in any previous Greek grammar or aid I tried, put into one logically organized book. To an introductory Greek student, the techniques of Wermuth’s   GREEKBOOK make a daunting project seem attainable and, for a continuing Greek student, it is an essential reference.


Mark Schutzius — Youth and Discipleship Pastor, Mt. Vernon (TN) Baptist Church; MDiv. 2011 and PhD candidate 2015, Mid-­America Baptist Theological Seminary, Cordova, Tennessee

You really should know how much help your book has been for me down here . . . People call your book the magic book!


The Brookmans (Marianne, Janet, Abigail, and Grace) — homeschool family, St. Louis, Missouri     

We are a homeschool family that  as thoroughly enjoyed taking New Testament Greek from Robert Wermuth. This GREEKBOOK puts together many of the helpful references he provided to us in class. It is a wonderful resource that will enable the Greek student to better understand Gods amazing Word.”


Go to: Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK.com

Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK Now Available for Purchase as a Watermarked PDF!

Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK Available for Purchase as a Watermarked PDF!

For New Testament Greek students seeking the contemporary convenience of electronic mobility, Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK is also available for purchase in a watermarked PDF format. I’ve posted three sample watermarked images below; click any of the images for two-stage enlargement viewing. Speedily delivered to you as a 3.8MB file via email, you’ll be able to easily load the full 119-page book—including the table of contents—to your iPad or other such portable devices. To purchase your Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK PDF at a discounted price of $29.99 (25% off the printed version), click on the image below linked to PayPal.


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Judas and Jesus—A Reminder of Our Depravity (Matthew 26:25)

Here is a verse that provides and excellent example of how, oftentimes, our English bible translations simply fail to render the original Greek in the most accurate manner. Within Greek grammatical rules is a grammatical structure where if one of two Greek negatives, οὐ, is used in a question, then the questioner is expecting a “Yes” answer. Conversely, if the other of the two negatives, μή, is used, a “No” answer is expected. In the following verse under consideration, the New American Standard version gets it right, while the highly reputable English Standard version unexpectedly seems to miss it.

The setting is the last Passover Jesus will share with the twelve disciples. Among the twelve, of course, is Judas, who has already secured his booty of silver from the chief priests in exchange for his impending betrayal of Jesus (v. 15). This fact is key to understanding the importance of the Greek grammatical structure in verse 25!

Now, knowing what has occurred in earlier in verse 15, Matt. 26:25 is even more startling, when in answer to Jesus’ all-knowing statement that one of his disciples would betray him, Judas emphatically asks Jesus, “It is not I, is it, Rabbi?” — μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι, ῥαββι;

According to Greek usage, Judas is expecting—at least in his mind and heart—a “No” answer from his omniscient Lord. This, in spite of the fact that, shortly after “Satan entered into Judas” (Luke 22:3), he has already been paid by the chief priests for the yet uncommitted deed of betrayal. Yet, surely Judas reasonably should have known by then that Jesus, the very Son of God, would know what was in his heart. A reminder and warning to us all of our depraved condition, most clearly set forth by Jeremiah: “The heart is more deceitful than all else, and is desperately sick; Who can understand it?” (Jer. 17:9)

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“Sipping” on Greek Participles

So . . . are you slipping on Greek participles when you’d rather be “sipping” on them instead? Here are some tips:

Greek Participles Defined

Participles are verbal adjectives. Being part verb, they have tense, voice and mode, while being part adjective, they also have (as do nouns and adjectives) gender, case, and number. As a result, the parsing of participles is represented through all six of these distinctions:  tense, voice, mode, gender, case, and number (e.g., λύων ‒ Present, Active, Participle, Masculine, Nominative, Singular).

Participles may be used “adjectivally” including as a substantive, when no antecedent noun is present.  In these instances, as with all adjectives, they agree in gender, case, and number with the nouns or pronouns they modify.  Used “adverbially,” participles may receive adverbial modifiers, and may take a direct object.


Participles are declined in all three genders:  masculine, feminine, and neuter. The masculine active participle is declined like the 3rd Declension masculine, lingual mute stem noun, ἄρχων.* The feminine active participle is declined like the 1st Declension feminine noun, γλῶσσα (whose nominative singular ends in α, and is not preceded by ε, ι, or ρ).  The neuter active participle is declined like 3rd Declension neuter nouns whose stems end in –ματ.

The middle and passive participle endings are declined like 2nd Declension masculines and neuters; the feminine is declined like 1st Declension feminine nouns whose nominative singular ends in . Remember Aorist Passive participles always use endings that are active in “appearance.” To get a more comprehensive “satellite view” of Greek Participles formation,  click  on each of the images, below.


In circumstantial (temporal, adverbial) clauses, the time frame of the participle in translation is related to the tense and time frame of the leading (Indicative) verb.  The Present participle is found where the action of the participle is represented as taking place at the same time as the action of the leading (Indicative) verb, regardless of when the action of the leading verb takes place.  The action of the Aorist and Perfect participles denote action that has occurred prior to the action denoted by the leading (Indicative) verb, regardless of whether the action of the leading verb is represented as occurring in the past, present, or future.  For more on translation of participles, both “Circumstantial” (temporal, adverbial) participles (i.e., those without a definite article), as well as “Articular” (adjectival) participles, see the post, “Participle = Verbal Adjective.” (Also see: Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK (pp. 68-69).

*NOTE:  It is imperative that the beginning Greek student learn the declension of the 3rd Declension noun ἀρχῶν, ὁ (ruler). From this noun Present “active” participle endings are derived, and the noun’s stem (ἀρχ-) is replaced with a verbal stem (or, as I like to say in class, “We’re putting Noah back into the ‘ark’ [ἀρχ] and sending him on a vacation.” The resultant verb stem + declined endings = a verbal-adjective, the grammatical description for a participle (e.g., λύων, λύοντος…).

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Another Peek at Greek: Taking a Look Inside “Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK”

GREEKBOOK Banner with Text

This post is particularly for those of you who have searched the internet for things pertaining to New Testament Greek grammar which—while they are not necessarily among the postings I’ve blogged here—are included within the entire corpus of Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK—A Systematic-Relational Beginning Greek Grammar for the New Testament Greek Student.

To enable you to have “full disclosure” of what actually is embodied in my book, I have posted images (JPEGs) revealing the entire “Table of Contents,” which also includes  the “Preface” with a background on how the book had its beginning, as well as comments to students and instructors of Greek, and finally a “Testimonials” section for your review. To enlarge the images below to maximum viewing size, please click twice on the image you desire to view—one click for a separate screen, the second for enlargementFor other “looks inside the book” and ordering information and options, go directly to: Wermuth’s GREEKBOOK.

greekbooksmallcover Wermuth's Greekbook table of contents Wermuth's Greekbook toc 2 Wermuth's Greekbook TOC3 Wermuth's Greekbook TOC4 Wermuth's Greekbook PREFACE1 Wermuth's Greekbook PREFACE2 Wermuth's GREEKBOOK Testimonials1 Wermuth's GREEKBOOK Testimonials2

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Greek & Hebrew Reader’s Bible ONLINE

Greek & Hebrew Reader's Bible
For those who learn visually and love to have an organized, systematic way of studying and memorizing, this analytical Greek & Hebrew Reader’s Bible ONLINE (click image above to enlarge) is what you would have created if developer John Dyer hadn’t already done so. Similar to Zack Hubert’s former online interactive, analytical bible tool, but with many more creative and useful “bells and whistles,” John Dyer’s online New Testament Greek tool is also very user-friendly.

Searchable by Book/Chapter/Verse, the accented Greek text has a “roll-over” function embedded that provides a full analytical and lexical summary of each word.  The user may allow assign colors to the words in the Greek text, according to part of speech categories. You can even change the size and style of Greek font being used. (Of course, all the above also applies to the Hebrew text functions as well). There’s even more which you will easily find and be able to use in your Greek (and Hebrew) studies, like setting parameters to preclude information that a student is already supposed to know. So, use it wisely and responsibly, and enjoy!

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“TV Makes People Nauseas” —OR— “How to ‘Parse’ a Greek Verb”

One of the most important considerations in studying the foundational elements of Greek must be given to the verb, that part of speech which affirms either action or state of being. The component elements of a verb are collectively referred to as its “parsing.” These components are:

1. Tense

2. Voice

3. Mode (or Mood)

4. Person

5. Number

. . . or, as my beginning Greek professor used to wisely proclaim (to our era of declining quality television programming viewers) via the acronym of the first letters of each of the above words: TV Makes People Nauseas!”

The “parsing” (from the Latin word meaning  “a part or “parts”) of Greek’s “model” regular verb λύω “I am loosing” is: Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular. Now, let’s take a closer look at what these “parsing” components represent—

1. Tense conveys “kind” of action and generally, in the Indicative Mode only, the “time” of the action. So, for the above verb, Present tense would mean both present time and continuous “action” (that is, activity “in progress” in real, present time). Of course, from your additional study elsewhere, you’ll know that the Greek tenses are the Present, Imperfect (continuous “action” in past time), Future, Aorist (a normal 1st Aor., and an “irregular” 2nd Aor., describing “point” or undefined action [in past time in the Indicative mode]), the Perfect (perfected action with continuing results), and the Pluperfect (equivalent to the English “Past Perfect” = I had loosed).

2. Voice (“active,” “middle,” or “passive”) tells how the action of the verb is related to the subject.

3.  Mode (or Mood) tells what the verb is affirming, its relation to “reality.”

Indicative — declaratives, simple assertions, interrogations.
Subjunctive — mildly contingent, hesitating affirmation; mode of probability.
Imperative — commands or entreaties; mode of “volition.”
Optative — strongly contingent; mode of “possibility,” weaker than the Subjunctive.

4. Person denotes who is acting as the subject.  In Greek the personal pronouns (i.e., I, you, he, she, it, we, you, and they) are included in the endings of the verb form.

5. Number is the “singularity” or “plurality” of the person or persons represented by the verb form, included in the verb’s personal endings.

By the way, since every Greek verb contains these five “parsing” elements that identify its structure, it only makes sense to realize that: “If you can ‘parse’ it, you can translate it!” Alternately stated, a verb’s “parsing”—once discerned by the student—is the verb’s way of “telling you” how to translate it. At that point, it’s only a matter of knowing the vocabulary.

There’s more: For a one-page PDF on Greek verbs—the way the tenses are formed and translated—click here (also downloadable from the sidebar). Additionally, you may want to download the Greek Indicative Verbs “PowerPoint” presentation here (or from the sidebar).

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“ει” Diphthong: “See” What You Say!

When working on the memorization of Greek verb endings, it’s important to “see” (in your mind’s eye) what you say (outloud or silently) as you practice. Therefore, regarding the Greek diphthong “ει,” it seems preferable and wise to pronounce it phonetically the same as the identical diphthong in the English word “height, as opposed to the phonetic sound in the English word “freight.” This is because the “ει” diphthong occurs within the 2nd and 3rd persons of “active voice” verb endings of the Indicative mode (-ει,  -εις), later “lengthening” to  when used in the same persons in the Subjunctive mode (-ῃ,-ῃς). Since the phonetic sound of  is the same as the diphthong in  “freight,” it tends to confuse the usage of these separately occurring endings (“ει” in the Indicative; “ῃ” in the Subjunctive, also “middle/passive voice” Indicative 2nd sing.) if pronounced identically. (more…)

Participle = “Verbal Adjective”

When you see a Greek word that looks like a verb at its beginning that has declined endings, that word must be a Participle. It is critically important that the beginning Greek student learn the declension of the 3rd Declension noun ἀρχῶν, ὁ (ruler). From this noun active participle endings are derived, and the noun’s stem (ἀρχ-) is replaced with a verbal stem (or, as I like to say in class, “We’re putting Noah back into the ‘ark’ [ἀρχ-] and sending him on a vacation.” The resultant verb stem + declined endings = a verbal-adjective, the grammatical description for a participle (e.g., λύων, λύοντος…).

When studying and memorizing participle endings, it is helpful to remember the nominative singular forms of each of the active, middle and passive endings that occur. Including thematic vowel changes, there are four active forms of participle endings (one of them used “passively” with Aorist passives) and three middle/passive forms. Since participles are verbal adjectives, the student will observe a verbal stem with declined endings in all three genders. The active endings (nominative singular) are represented by: -ων,    -ουσα, -ον (Present, 2nd Aorist); -ας, -ασα, -αν (1st Aorist); -εις, -εισα, -εν (1st2nd Aorist passive; remember: Aorist Passives always utilize “active looking” endings); and -ως, -υια, -ος (Perfect). Since each of these groups of endings are declined in a similar way with the masculines and neuters in the 3rd declension and the feminines in the 1st declension (like γλῶσσα), knowledge of the nominative singulars becomes a “jumping off” point in the student’s mind for recognition of any other case forms he may encounter. The middle/passive endings are much more simple, occuring in the 2nd declension for masculine and neuter forms, and the 1st declension for the feminines (like ἀγάπη) and represented by; -ομενος, –ομενη, –ομενον (Present, 2nd Aorist); -αμενος, -αμενη, -αμενον (1st Aorist); –μενος, -μενη, -μενον (Perfect).

When the Greek “circumstantial” (temporal, adverbial) participle occurs (without an article) in the Present tense. The “temporal” (time-oriented) adverb used to translate a Present tense circumstantial participle is “As” (or “While”). The time frame of the “dependent” (temporal, circumstantial) clause should be consistent with the time frame of the indicative verb of the “independent” (main) clause.

(PRESENT) βλέπει τὸν κύριον ἐρχόμενον πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ …
“He is seeing the Lord (as He [the Lord] is) coming toward him and he is saying to him…” (John 1:29a)

When the Greek “circumstantial” participle occurs in the Aorist tense. The “temporal” (time-oriented) adverb used to translate an Aorist tense circumstantial participle is “After.” Again, the time frame of the “dependent” (temporal, circumstantial) clause is translated concurrent with the time frame of the indicative verb in the “independent” (main) clause. (ibid, p. 69)

(AORIST) ἐλθῶν οὖν ὁ Ἰησους εὖρεν αὐτὸν.
“Therefore after He came Jesus found him.” (John 11:17a)
(Better): “Therefore after Jesus came He [Jesus] found him.”

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I’ll Not Remain “Mute” About This!

I’ll not remain mute about this.  I’ll teach you something about “Mute Stem” changes (JPEG) within Greek verbs, so you won’t need to remain “mute” about the subject, either!  As a New Testament Greek student it can be helpful in the “short run” (or longer) if you can visualize in your “mind’s eye” certain critical pieces of information.  Some of that critical information is this: “What happens when certain Greek consonants collide with other Greek consonants, and why? Please read the following treatise on “Mute Stem” changes where, below the following chart, I will give you a fairly easy way to “set up this chart” in your mind.

The basic components (the “labials,” “gutterals” and “dentals”) of the above “Mute Stems Changes”chart can be fairly easily replicated in your mind if you remember this “set up” process.  While these three categories of Greek letters (“labials,” “gutterals” and “dentals”) are listed horizontally as they function within the chart, it’s easier to set them up vertically. Here’s how:

(1) Start reciting the Greek alphabet: αβγ...δthen start writing the letters (vertically) as soon as you get to β, γ, δYou now have the first letter of each of the three categories of letters.

(2) Next, vertically write (with Greek letters) the first letters of the acronym:preachers’ kids (are) terrific”…or…π, κ, τNow you have the second letters of each row.

(3) For the final vertical row, add the Greek equivalent of an“h” to the letters you just wrote (π, κ, τ), resulting in: φ, χ, θ. With this done, you can now more easily memorize the results of collisions with various consonants that occur.

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