Adjectives are declined in all three declensions. With the exception of certain 3rd Declension adjectives (like πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν – all, each, every), the Masculine adjective forms like the 2nd Declension noun, λόγος, ὁ. Τhe Feminine adjective normally forms like 1st Declension Feminines whose nominative singular case ends in “-η.” Finally, the Neuter adjective forms like 2nd Declension Neuter nouns (e.g., τέκνον, τὸ). The Definite Article also displays these forms, with the exception of the Neuter Nominative and Accusative singular forms, which do not retain the final “ν.”
Frequently Used 3rd Declension and Irregular Adjectives:
There are several frequently occurring Greek adjectives which, although “irregular,” are formed using all three Greek declensions. The declensions of ἀληθής, -ες (true), πολύς, πολλή, πολύ (much, many), and µέγας, µεγάλη, μέγα (great) can be observed in the following paradigm:
Uses and Translation
Adjectives will always agree in gender, case, and number with the substantives (nouns, pronouns, or other adjectives) they modify. Hence, τοῦ πιστοῦ δοῦλου = of the faithful servant (all masculine, genitive, singular), or τῇ πρωτῇ ἡµέρᾳ = on the first day (all feminine, locative, singular). Based on its position in the Greek sentence, an adjective will always modify a substantive in one of two ways:
(1) Attributively as an adherent description. The attributive position of the Greek adjective is always immediately following a definite article, regardless of whether the adjective precedes or follows the substantive it modifies.
ὁ πίστος δοῦλος
= the faithful servant
ὁ δοῦλος ὁ πίστος
(2) As a Predicate adjective, presenting an additional statement. The predicate position of the Greek adjective occurs wherever the adjective does not immediately follow a definite article. In these instances, the predicate (is, are) should be supplied.
ὁ δοῦλος πίστος
= the servant is faithful
πίστος ὁ δοῦλος